¿Qué son las proteínas?

¿Qué son las proteínas?

Las proteinas constituyen uno de los nutrientes más importantes que necesita nuestro organismo, por lo que hay que tomar las cantidades adecuadas cada día. Estas son el material de construcción de toda forma de vida, y resultan fundamentales para el crecimiento de las células y la reparación de los tejidos. Están hechas de “bloques” llamados aminoácidos. Algunos de estos aminoácidos son llamados “esenciales” ya que el cuerpo no puede fabricarlos y, por tanto, es necesario aportarlos mediante la alimentación. Si una proteína contiene todos los aminoácidos esenciales, se la considera “completa”. Por otro lado están los “no esenciales” que nuestro cuerpo los produce aunque no los obtengamos del alimento, y los “condicionales” que por lo general no son esenciales excepto en situaciones de estrés o enfermedad.

Qué y cómo pueden ser las proteínas

Las proteínas pueden ser de origen animal o vegetal. Todas la proteínas de origen animal son completas. Y pese a lo que se piensa sobre las de origen vegetales, si es posible encontrar fuentes de proteína completa como por ejemplo en la quinoa, el amaranto, trigo sarraceno, alga espirulina, semillas de cáñamo o hemp, semillas de soja, semillas de chía. Además dos proteínas vegetales incompletas pueden ser complementarias: una proteína puede proporcionar el aminoácido del que carece la otra y viceversa. Todos los alimentos vegetales contienen proteína así que si llevas una dieta variada vegetariana no tendrías que tener ningún problema al respecto, pero ¡OJO!… debe ser variada 😉

  • ¿Qué funciones desempeñan las proteínas?
    Pese a lo que se cree, acerca de que la proteína solo sirve para reparar el músculo o hacerlo crecer, la proteína juega un papel muy importante en muchas más áreas de nuestro organismo como por ejemplo las que tienen función defensiva actúan como anticuerpos frente a posibles anti-cancerígenos o agentes extraños, o contribuyendo a la formación de coágulos para evitar hemorragias. Otras forman parte del transporte de oxigeno a los tejidos, el colesterol a través de la sangre,…
  • ¿Cuál sería la cantidad de proteína adecuada?
    Bueno, esto va a depender de muchas variables como edad, sexo, altura, peso, ejercicio diario,…
    Pero ten en cuenta que el exceso de proteína por sí solo no va a generarte más masa muscular. A veces, con el tema de los gimnasios se tiende a abusar de las proteínas incluso dejando de lado los hidratos de carbono, pero cuando dejamos de consumir los hidratos suficientes nuestro cuerpo empieza a coger la energía de las proteínas y estas dejan de hacer el trabajo para el que realmente estaban destinadas, creándonos un déficit por otro lado. El consumo excesivo de proteína es malo para tu hígado, tus riñones y tus huesos, además te puede producir un déficit de vitaminas y minerales.
  • Fuentes de proteínas:
    Frutos secos, cereales, legumbres, semillas como la chía o de cáñamo (hemp), algas, huevos, lácteos, carne de ave y otros tipos de carne blanca magra, pescado, carne roja magra.
cerealesDSC03401Quinoa

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